Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert (RACO)

"Ya no hay Atlántico, ya no hay dos continentes": regionalismo e identidad nacional durante la Guerra de la Independencia en Nueva España

Scott Eastman

Resum


This paper analyzes the growth of regionalism and national identity within the framework of the late Spanish empire. Rather than compare two linked but ultimately disparate “national” projects, I have positioned Spain and New Spain within the context of shared political, cultural and ideological traditions. During this crucial defining epoch, competing nationalist discourses emerged throughout the various realms of the Spanish empire grounded in a common Catholic faith and proclaimed in article 12 of the constitution. Yet only in the Americas did peripheral nationalisms develop that advocated separation from Spain, as other regional identities in peninsular Spain became subsumed within a broader Spanish nationalism throughout the first decades of the nineteenth century. Clerics such as Hidalgo and Morelos served as the main protagonists in the war efforts of 1808-1814/1810-1821 as well as in the Cortes of Cádiz, the elected body which first defined the parameters of liberalism as the basis for representative government in the Hispanic world. Although Spain had been utilized as an inclusive symbol of the motherland at the outbreak of violence, many clerics began to emphasize an American identity during the war and subsequently carne to articulate a Mexican nationalism that displayed tensions between the Spanish cultural heritage of Guadalupano Catholicism and continuities with the imperial Aztec past.

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