Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert (RACO)

La Ilustración y el pueblo: el “loco” Bernardino Tapia. Cambio y hegemonía cultural en los Andes al fin de la colonia. Azángaro 1818

Luis Miguel Glave

Resum


This essay is a guided glance through the new cultural history that analyses the behaviour of the popular sectors within the political mobilisations that preceded tire Hispanic American independencies. It attempts lo listen to the multiple voices of the people that were raised through attitudes, beliefs and actions on both individual as well as network levels during a major crisis process in representation of the viceroyal state ensemble.
When the relations between tire peoples experiences and the processes of change arc analysed, we can place the popular acting parties more accurately, and we provide them with the prominence that old political or nationalistic visions had snatched away from them. This study focuses on a micro-historic analysis of the Aymara communities of the high southern Andean plateau, with a special emphasis placed on the paradigmatic case of a pasquinader called Bernardino Tapia. The case took place in 1818, when a network of relationships headed by Tapia was discovered. This network was devised to diffuse pasquinades un thc region of Azángato, to the South of present-day Peru, and had an unusual way of understanding the political process prior to independence. It was in fact a period that took place between the end of he Cuzco revolution of 1814 and tire
start of the final battle for independence of 1821-1824. We use the forms of historiographical analysis that have been drawn up to understand the popular culture of the French Revolution era, particularly those forms that refer to books, readings, and to tire mentality that Robert Darnton proposes. We situate the site of tire reading in a rural society during a political crisis, an unknown and unexpected theme in pro-independence historiography. The assumptions that emerge from ibis analysis are compared with tire reformist approaches of Mexican historiography, such as those put forward by Eric Van Young. Finally, this study searches for a comparative vision in the great number of cases of Hispanic American uprisings between 1808-1821.

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