Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert (RACO)

El oidium en España: la primera gran plaga americana del viñedo. Difusión y consecuencias 1850-1870.

Juan Piqueras Haba

Resum


Oidium, the first of the vine fungal diseases, is native from North America and was given the name Oidium tuckerii after the gardener Mr Tucker, who first detected it in England in 1845. The disease was detected again in 1848 in Paris and in 1851 in Bordeaux, Porto, Valencia, Roussillon and Rheinpfalz, and in 1852-1853 in the rest of Europe, where it caused widespread havoc to vineyards and wine quality. It develops and spreads rapidly in humid and warm weather, 20 to 27 ºC, and it can be controlled by a mixture of sulphur, used after the disastrous vintage of 1854. This paper treats the spatial spread in Europe and in detail in Spain, where the coastal regions (Galicia, Catalonia, Valencia, Malaga) were the most damaged because of the humidity. Its effects in production, prices and wine exportation in 1850-1870 are also treated.

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