Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert (RACO)

Nº24. Competing interests in biomedical publications: Main guidelines and selected articles

Coordinators: Ana Marusic and Harvey Marcovitch.

Each year brings to light several cases of scientific fraud. In 2011, the Netherlands Academy of Sciences struck off a renowned social psychologist who had falsified the results in several of his articles published in respected journals such as Science. He was one of the most notorious cases, on the heels of another scandal two years earlier when a respected U.S. scientist in multimodal analgesia apparently manipulated data in at least 20 articles published since 1996.

These are extreme cases, and the harm caused to patients and public health, they say, is limited. However, there are other types of misconduct in the field of scientific research that are more widespread, subtle and difficult to detect. These include practices such as selective publication of data to support a previous hypothesis, biased discussion, the hiring of ghostwriters, plagiarism or the temptation of some journal editors to promote the articles with positive results.

These are just some examples of bad practice in the biomedical publishing world that organizations like the CSE (Council of Science Editors) and COPE (Committee on Publication Ethics) are responsible for reporting. Ana Marušić, a former president of CSE, and COPE President Harvey Marcovitch, have edited a new Esteve Foundation Notebook containing a selection of guides and articles on conflict of interest in biomedical journals.

The publication is intended as a useful tool for readers, authors and editors of scientific journals, and for those who are interested to preserving the integrity of scientific knowledge. A collection of a wide range of resources for combating bad practices in biomedical publication, the book addresses conflict of interest as a factor that may have a significant adverse effect on the field of research. And although findings of malpractice are less serious than the falsification or fabrication of data, cumulatively their damage on scientific knowledge can be greater than that of the most notorious cases.

Please Note: – For copyright issues, it is not possible to download the full PDF of the Notebook or chapters 2, 12 or 15. – The updated version of Chapter 2 can be downloaded directly from theCSE website. – The PDF version of Chapter 12 can be requested via email from fundacion@esteve.org

First pages

First pages (p. I-III)
 
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Index (p. V-VI)
 
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Introduction (p. VII-VIII)
 
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Main guidelines

1. Committee on Publications Ethics Guideline (p. 3-14)
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2. Council of Science Editors Guideline (p. 15-25)
 
3. European Association of Science Editors Guideline (p. 21-25)
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4. International Committee of Medical Journal Editors Guideline (p. 27-34)
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5. World Association of Medical Editors Guideline (p. 35-45)
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6. World Health Organization Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean Guideline (p. 47-55)
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Selected articles

7. Is academic medicine for sale? (p. 59-62)
Marcia Angell
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8. Reporting financial conflicts of interest and relationships between investigators and research sponsors (p. 63-66)
Catherine D. DeAngelis, Phil B. Fontanarosa, Annette Flanagin
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9. Financial associations of authors (p. 67-69)
Jeffrey M. Drazen, Gregory D. Curfman
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10. Conflicts of interest: can you believe what you read? (p. 71-75)
Frank van Kolfschooten
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11. The role of journal editors in the responsible conduct of industry-sponsored biomedical research and publication: a view from the other side of the editor’s desk (p. 77-79)
Stanley G Korenman
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12. Editor’s declaration of their own conflicts of interest (p. 81-83)
Irina Haivas, Sara Schroter, Fabian Waechter, Richard Smith
 
13. How does PLoS Medicine manage competing interests? (p. 85-87)
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14. Conflicts of interest: how money clouds objectivity (p. 89-95)
Richard Smith
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15. Best practice guidelines on publication ethics: a publisher’s perspective (p. 97-123)
Chris Graf, Elizabeth Wager, Alyson Bowman, Suzan Fiack, Diane Scott-Lichter, Andrew Robinson
 
16. Conflict of interest, journal review, and publication policy (p. 126-129)
Donald F Klein, Ira D Glick
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17. Making sense of non-financial competing interests (p. 131-134)
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18. Addressing conflict in strategic literature reviews: disclosure is not enough (p. 135-137)
David Michaels
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19. How could disclosure of interests work better in medicine, epidemiology and public health: How do potential conflicts of interest confuse medicine and public health? (p. 139-141)
Harvey Marcovitch
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20. Editorial interest in conflict of interest (p. 143-146)
Ana Marusic
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21. Conflict of interest in science communication: more than a financial issue (p. 147-156)
Harvey Marcovitch, Virginia Barbour, Carme Borrell, Felix Bosch, Esteve Fernández, Helen Macdonald, Ana Marusic, Magne Nylenna
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Acknowledgements

Acknowledgements (p. 157)
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Appendix

Index of the Esteve Foundation Notebooks (p. 159-160)
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