Revistes Catalanes amb Accés Obert (RACO)

A Review of Recent Advances in Surface Defect Detection using Texture analysis Techniques

Xianghua Xie

Resum


In this paper, we systematically review recent advances in surface inspection using computer vision and image processing techniques, particularly those based on texture analysis methods. The aim is to review the state-of-the-art techniques for the purposes of visual inspection and decision making schemes that are able to discriminate the features extracted from normal and defective regions. This field is so vast that it is impossible to cover all the aspects of visual inspection. This paper focuses on a particular but important subset which generally treats visual surface inspection as texture analysis problems. Other topics related to visual inspection such as imaging system and data acquisition are out of the scope of this survey. The surface defects are loosely separated into two types. One is local textural irregularities which is the main concern for most visual surface inspection applications. The other is global deviation of colour and/or texture, where local pattern or texture does not exhibit abnormalities. We refer this type of defects as shade or tonality problem. The second type of defects have been largely neglected until recently, particularly when colour imaging system has been widely used in visual inspection and where chromatic consistency plays an important role in quality control. The emphasis of this survey though is still on detecting local abnormalities, given the fact that majority of the reported works are dealing with the first type of defects. The techniques used to inspect textural abnormalities are discussed in four categories, statistical approaches, structural approaches, filter based methods, and model based approaches, with a comprehensive list of references to some recent works. Due to rising demand and practice of colour texture analysis in application to visual inspection, those works that are dealing with colour texture analysis are discussed separately. It is also worth noting that processing vector-valued data has its unique challenges, which conventional surface inspection methods have often ignored or do not encounter. We also compare classification approaches with novelty detection approaches at the decision making stage. Classification approaches often require supervised training and usually provide better performance than novelty detection based approaches where training is only carried out on defect-free samples. However, novelty detection is relatively easier to adapt and is particularly desirable when training samples are incomplete.

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